Here is an interesting supply chain challenge. India has a billion mouths to feed and a large agriculture sector but the process of getting food from field to consumer is hopelessly inefficient.
I am not sure I have much to add except to say that the challenges involved in modernizing India’s grain supply chain seem so large that I am not sure where you would start. In the US, these sorts of problems get solved in a largely decentralized fashion. There are firms of sufficient size both upstream and downstream that they can agree on solutions and make them happen. Here, it’s not clear if anyone outside of the government is big enough to take the lead. Once you get the government involved, there is the risk that decisions favor voters that are likely at risk of losing (e.g., small farmers) over society as a whole.